Karat Moideen Kutty Haji - K.K. Mohammed Abdul Karim

Karat Moideen Kutty Haji was one of the prominent leaders of Khilafat revolutionary movement. (1921-22)He was a native of Aravangara, near Pookkottur. His father’s name was Unni Ashan. From the age of 9 to 12 he studied in Alathur Juma Masjid under Ali musaliar, the Khilafat leader. When the mappila rebellion started his father got arrested and died in Bellari Jail. Karat Moideen Kutty Haji was a good religious scholar and aerator. He was also a good teacher. For many years he was the Khasi of PuliyamParambu Juma masjid. Later he became the Khasi Khatheeb in Kodangad Juma masjid, near Kondotty. In those days Khilafat movement was spreading in India. Pookkottur was one of the major Khilafat centres. The reason why the movement got strengthened in Pookkottur was Haji Saheb’s presence there. In 1922 May 24th he gave his statement before the Special Supdt. It is as follows.

“I have seen the proof documents from 1 to 18. The Malayalam document No. 15 is not nine. All others are nine only. I don’t know the youngster Koyappathodi Ahmed Kutty. When I was in Areacode somebody sent clothes worth Rs. 100/- to Kalluvettukuzhiyil Kunjalan Kutty. Kunjalan Kutty send a reply also. But I don’t know any Koyappathodi Persons. I know Ali Musaliar. When I was 12 years old we both went to Hajj together. I have seen Madhavan Nair two years back on 27th of the Vrichika month at Kondotty Khilafat meeting. I was a member of the committee even before the meeting Madhavan Nair. He was released from jail four days ago, when I saw him. Mohammed Abdul Rahman was with him at that time. I can tell that we are Khilafat people. But are will not do anything illegal. We will always obey court order and ready to give every information to the Sub Inspector.

Statement given by Karat Mohammed Haji to Sub Inspector Venketeshwara Iyer on May 24th 1922:- “I am a native of Pookkottur Amsam. I studied Khuran from Kodangad Masjid where I am at present is a Khasi. I know district Supdt. Hitchcoke and Deputy Supdt. Amu Saheb. I saw them in Aravangara, 15 days after the gun robbery of Nilambur Kovilakam Thamburan. I am a member of Kondotty Khilafat Committee. I am also the vice president of Aravangara Khilafat Committee. Four days before I met the Supdt. Aravangara Khilafat Committee president inform the Calicut district Committee about the gun robbery. They informed that the police doubted Vadakke Veettil Mohammed, the Khilafat manager. Police came to arrest him. So we guessed that there will be problems. People assembled in large numbers. But they were pacified. But we did not get the gun. When we got the news of rebellion at Thirurangadi, Mohammed AbduRahman, the Kerala State Khilafat Secretary Moideen Koya and Ponnani Taluk Kodenjeri Moidu Musliar investigated the matter. They came around 10 O’ clock in the morning to Pookkottur. Abdurahman asked me what I shall do if the Khilafat manager got arrested. I replied that if it is not time I can give proof to that effect. If it was related to Khilafat, I shall tell yes. He asked me what shall I do if a warrant come from the court. I replied that I shall present myself before the court. I gave assurance that if it was related to Khilafat since I am a member of Khilafat I am prepared to go to jail. Abdu Rahman telegram the following sentence to Kozhikode. The sentence was “The illness is not dangerous. Feels better.” This telegram was sent in a pre determined style. The secretary was sent to Pookkottur. This was because the police Supdt. was went to Pookkottur instead of Thirurangadi. Nottath Kunju Pokker took the message to Manjeri and telegram from there to Calicut.
Pappetukaran kutty Hassan come from Thirurangadi and another mappila from Nellikuth. I don’t remember his name. Both of them came when I was talking to Abdul Rahman. It was 12 Noon. (Kutti Hassan was hanged afterwards) He informed us that the military reached Thirurangadi. The Thirurangadi masjid has been encircled by them in order to arrest Ali Musliar. The people of Melmuri was prepared to fight. They are waiting people from Pookkottur. AbduRahman said that things will not happen like that. He at once sent me and Moidu Musaliar to Melmuri, He sent us to advice the Melmuri people not to go to Thirurangadi. We reached Melmuri. There Mannayil Mammu Haji, Abdu Rahman Kutty Haji, PunnonPuzha Kunjamu, Palliyali Kunhali, Cheriyam Chekku, son of Puliyil Kutty Hassan were ready to go to Thirurangadi along with 50 others. We adviced Abdu Rahman Haji not to go to Thirurangadi. When we returned Abdu Rahman had gone to Manjeri to bring advocate Madhavan Nair. Madhavan Nair talked to about 100 people. The time was 3 O’ clock. At that time only I understood that Madhavan Nair came from jail. He described like this- “I went to jail for the people. For the Mappilas and Hindus of Ernad”. Four days bacjk only we are released from jail. If I and Yakub Hassan protested there would have been problems in Calicut.

He said that the wishes and the Khilafat and Congress movement were not to rebel against police. We should obey the correct rules. If you are working against this it will affect Mahatma Gandhi and Ali brothers. Mosques will not be attacked”. In the meantime another Mappila reached there from Thirurangadi. He informed that military attacked the Juma Masjid and fired. A number of Hindus and Muslims were killed. Madhavan Nair reacted to this news by saying that this news will not be true. The military will not attack the mosque. More and more people assembled there after hearing this news. It was convinced that they could not be pacified. Mohammed Abdu Rahman, Madhavan Nair, Moideen Koya and Moideen Moulavi went to Kondotty. I requested again and again to Madhavan Nair to purify the people. The most was angry because of the attack of the mosque. I returned home. Nobody went to Thirurangadi. Some went to Nilambur during night. Due to rain they could not go to Thirurangadi. Melmuri and Pookkottur there were about 100 people. More people joined them on the way.

I saw Paranchery Kunjaramutty, Kakkodi Ahmed Molla, Manayil Mammu Haji, Kunju Moideen Haji and Abdu Rahman Kutty. AbduRahman Kutty and Haji Parancheri Kunjahammed Kutty went to Kunji Thangal who was in his daughters house. They described him the events in Thirurangadi. Two Mappilas from Nellikuth come there at that time. They told that 13 muslims were killed in Tirurangadi and that the military fired from the court and not from the mosque. I asked Kunji Thangal whether we should go to Nilambur. He enquired that whether anybody from Melmuri had gone to Nilambur. I replied that they have gone. He told us not to go. He told that the problem of gun robbery has been settled with him and Inspector Narayana Menon.

“If you go my name will be spoiled. So you should not go”. AbduRahiman Haji told to Kunjalan Kutty about Aram Thamburan(6th Raja). That was the reason for Pookkottur disturbance. Those who went to Nilambur come back on Sunday. They started dacoit on Monday. Rumours spread about the arrest of Kunji Thangal after the Thirurangadi incident. This was strenghthened by the frequent visit of the military from Malappuram to Kottappadi. Myself and 50 others took Kunji Koya Thangal from his Melmuri home to his Pookkottur house.

On August 25th 1921, Poduvenni Paramban Veeran Kutty, the manager of Kondotty Khilafat committee told me that the military reached Kondotty. We informed this news to Kunji Thangal. This was informed by Vadakke Veettil Mohammed earlier. He did not go to Nilambur. His brothers son Kunjanu had gone. He became a martyr in Pookkottur clashes. Kunji Thangal ordered like this “ If military attacks you, you retaliate. Do not attack without any reason”. At that time Thangal was living in a house at Kozhikode Pookkottur 27th mile. The Pookkottur war occurred between 26th and 276th mile. I did not participate in it and I am also not a witness. There was no bund or trench to hide. It was Vadakke Veettil Mohammed who organized everything. But he was killed in the war. It was he who organized the people in the field and near the canal. He prepared about 100 people for the war. When the war started Karenthodi Chekkutty and some others took KunjiThangal to Pappinippara. When firing was going on Chekkutty was with Thangal. After the war military moved Malappuram.

I made arrangement for the burial of 120 people. The next day I helped for the burial 215 people.

On 27th Kunji Thangal sent a person and called me. On 28th I went to Pappinipuram. On the way I heard that Thangal left towards north. On 29th morning I and Mottonm Kunjokher went to Kunji Thangal. When we reached Nirackal we heard that Moyi Adhikari and the state writer Govindan arrested Thangal. We came back and stayed at Areacode for two days. Our food arrangement was made by Pareekutty. When we asked for food he informed us that Kalluvetti AhmedKutty told Naduveettil Khadir that you are dacoits. You should not be served food.

On Ist I returned back. My house was burned. I took my family members and went evening to Vanbelath Mudira Parambath Ahmed Haji. He told my father to hide or send me away to some other place. Because Abdulla Haji and Wariam Kunnath Kunjahammed Haji had ordered to kill me. They thought that it was me who hosted the white flag on the public road and the Kovilakam road after the Pookkottur war. Actually it was done by a motor driver Ahmed. He lived along with Vadakkeveettil Ahmed. On the flag it was written like this. “Nobody is prepared to war”

I went into hiding for 15 days. Kollapparamban Abdu Haji told my father to send me to him. When I reached home I came to know about the message. This information was given to my father by Marakkarukutty Haji of Pookkottur. My father told me to go and met Abdu Haji. Since Inspector Chekkutty was killed according to the instruction of Warriam Kunnath Ahmed Haji I knew that my case was nothing to them; I joined AbduHaji’s group.

I stayed along with this group for 10 days in Veembur. On the 8th day the group started attack on military from hiding. Its leader was Appam Kulam Moideen. He was shot dead by the military. This incident occurred at Mankada Pallippuram. Neechi Kanden Kunjali, Kanniveedu Mulla were among them. Both Abdu Haji and Perimbalam Kammad Mulla stayed in his house. We had to get back the riffle of Okkappade Mohammed Haji after its repair from the blacksmith Chekkutty. Ahmed Haji was in the British army. This riffle was found by a youth sea man of Thirurangadi from a well. Ahmed Haji died in the Morayur encounter. Appam Kulam Moideen took the rifle and tried to fire at a policeman. Police blocked him.

I carried only a stick. I never used a gun. My work was to pray along with Abdu Haji and travel along with him.

I had made arrangements to converts a member of Hindus into Islam. I shall say about it later. About 100 persons from Abdu Haji’s group visited the places. Pookkottur, Thirurangadi, Valiyora, Valakkulam, and Perimbalam etc. We stayed in the house of Pakker near the masjid for almost about one month. Palackal Palliyali Veerankutty of Valluvamparamba gave us food. Veerankutty is the brother in law of Parappuram Ahmed Kutty, the Adhikari of Valluvambram. We spent day and night in the forest region of Thottakkedankunnu. When we were there nothing had happended. We also did not do anything. AbduHaji gave money for food. We purchased rice from some people by forcing them. The Trasurer was Puthiyappila Koya. He was along with us in Thottakkad. At the place Thottapparavom in which Mammootty and Ambayathingal Ibrahim kutty left Wariam Kunnath Kunjahemmed Haji’s group and joined us.

Abdu Haji was asked to go to Areacode to mitigate the people. Abdu Haji sent me, Payyanadan Mayan of Pandikkad, Vembur Kunjokken Mulla’s son Hydru and Kuzhiyil Koya to Areacode. They traveled with high speed. Me and Miniamkuzhi Koya followed them. We reached Areacode at noon. I went to the mosque directly.

People whowere in the front went to Attappuram Illam. When I was returning Moyan had 20 riffles with him. They told that those riffles were of Attupuram Namboodiri. Attupuram Namboodiri along with another person were killed. Three people were arrested and wanted. All of us went to the house of Ambalathingal Veeran Kutty. We saw the tied people there. Those arrested by us one Nair and two Imbrandiris. Time was seven O clock. In the morning they were left free. We ordered them to go away. I alongwith those who joined us from Areacode market went to the house of Kalluvetti Ahmed Kutty. There Ahmed Kutty told that the act of killing Attupuram Namboodiri was not correct. Eventhough our relation is not good his prosperity is with me. KunjalanKutty also said that before killing it should have been informed. That place was not good and the Namboodiri’s were going to Calicut for her daughters marriage purpose. Kalluvetti Kunjalan Kutty, Imbichi Mohammed Kutty and Alassan were the guards of the illam. Kunjalikutty enquired another anything valuable inside the house. Then replied that there were only some bronze vessels.

We stayed there for about 15 days. The responsibility to watch the movement of the army to Areacode was given to Ibrahim Kutty and Imbichi Muhammed. During our 15 day stay there Kunjalankutty used to go to Karippuvan Illam. Over 500 hindus from Vilayil, Areacode, Iruvetti, Kavanur, Parappur, Urngattiri and Vakalur were forced to convert into islam. I never go out side. They were brought to me by the mappilas of the place. During their religious conversion Kalluvetti Kunjalan Kutty used to be there. Nobody need not join our religion without their consent. If anybody joins they joined with their own willingness, I don’t know whether those who brought to me were threatened by Mappilas. It was the 3rd day after I came to Areacode, the Areacode police station were burned. It was an act of locals. As far as I know it was done by Maliyekkal Mammad, Ibrahim Kutty, Maliyekkal Marakkarutty etc. At the same time a small boat which was going that way was looted by Kunjalan Kutty’s people. In the materials robbed there were shoes and Trouser. All those materials are with that group.

At the same time Warriam Kunnath Kunjahammed Haji came along with 200 people to Areacode. They ordered Kalluvetti Kunjalan Kutty, Ibrahim Kutty, Imbichi Mohammed Kutty to go to Kondotty and instigate the people there. But they disobeyed it. On the same day Abdu Haji and Puthiyappila Koya came to Areacode. They used to get food from Kondotty. If any disturbance occurred there they will not get food anymore. Warriam Kunnath Ahmed Haji himself went to Kondotty and returned back to Areacode. On that day army reached Areacode. At that time myself and Abdu Haji and his gang were at Karippalane Illam. We did not go to Kondotty along with Warriam Kunnath Ahmed Haji.

Kunjahammed Haji’s gang was planning to strike the army between Kaloth and Ozhukur. This guarilla army fired at the military. And some of the military men died. And some others injured. About 14 Mappilas became martyrs. Our group also joined with them. Me, Abu Haji and Puthiyappila Koya stayed during night at Kozhakkad. Afterwards stayed at different places because our gang was disrupted.

I went along with sufi to Areacode. From there we went to Konnara Jaram for prayer. We got a letter from chembrassery Thangal at the Jaram. In that letter we were asked to get united and fight the military. Besides everybody was asked to present at Mamburam Jaram. Me and Sayed Mohammed Koya Thangal went to the Chembrassery Thangal. We stayed 4 days with him. Chembrassery Thangal went to see his wife and children. He did not return back. Me, Abdu Haji, Puthiyappila Koya alias Mohammed Koya Thangal and some others started to go to Mambaram.

On the way we met people who were returning from Mambaram. They told us that there is military at Mambaram and any clash at there will destroy the Holy Khabaristan. They were very much frightened. So we returned back to Thottakkadu at Pulpatta. Military came there also. The continuous firing by the military disrupted our gang. I went to my place. But Police arrested me around 4 O’ clock at night near Pallatta Mosque.

The statement given by Karatt Moideen Kutty Haji through Inspector Mr. Narayana Menon on 1922 June 8th is given below.

On Dec. 31st 1920, Kuriet Vadakkumpurath Abdullah Koya(Chengattur Amsham) Thangal, Poduvunni Paramban Veerankutty(Nediyiruppu Amsham) and Neechimannil Kunji Kommu(Kondotty Amsham) come to me. Thangal requested me to join in the Khilafat movement. They also asked me to start an association of land tenants. Thus an association was instituted.

A committee was formed with KunjiThangal(late) as president, Vadakke Veettil Mohammed and Karuthedath Alavi as managers, Paravancheri Kunjammooty and Mannarthodi Kunjalan as secretaries. I was the vice President of the committee. In the meeting held on January 23rd 1921 Ali Musaliar was present. Kattilassery Mohammed Musaliar was also there. The chairs to sit supplied by Perapurath Ahmed Kutty Adhikari. Kallussery Mohammed Musaliar also participated. The meeting was held in Vellur. Ali Musaliar was a fanatic and believed that Khilafat rule will come. Some time I used to go to Ali Musaliar. I use to attend his religious classes. Ten years ago I went to Mecca along with Musaliar. During night I participated the religious classes at Podiyar. Twice Malappuram police come and told not to include my name in the committee. I went to Kondotty. Till Ramsan I was there. It was under my leadership the “Petti”(the box) with Khilafat flag was taken in Pullara Nercha.

Under my instruction Thakbeer was voiced. Valluambram police and Administrator participated in the religious festival. The “Petty”(Box) was placed by the natives of Pookkottur in the Jaram. They completed the prayer erarly and left the place. This was on March 1921. Again for Malappuram Nercha the Petty was taken from Podiyatt along with Thakbeer. The police at that time also banned Thakbeer. Afterwords as per Ali Musaliar’s instruction I participated in Khilafat meeting. It was on June 24 1921 Muzhikkal Cheriya Ashan of Pookkottur also was in the meeting. Ali musaliar’s speech was of instigating violence. We will overcome any kind of obstacles and even by laying down our lives. We will go forward with the movement. In this case we can neglect even the advices of parents. Before Juma Thirurangadi volunteers started to make Khilafat knife. Abdu Haji, his friends and some people of Melmuri continued it. AbduHaji was fanatic. He used to abuse hindus. He did not like the utterances of Madhavan Nair and Gopala Menon. He is blood sucker and he is not afraid of death.

In 1921 August 20th Abdu Rahman(Khilafat Committee Secretary) Moidu Musliar, Moideen Koya(District Khilafat Committee Secretary) etc came to Pookkottur Khilafat office. They adviced us that Amu Saheb(The Deputy Police Supdt.) alongwith reserve police is coming to Pookkottur from Calicut. And we should not do any violence. At 11 O’ clock Pappadakkaran Ahmed Kutty told me that the east masjid in Thirurangadi is surrounded by the military. They were prepared to catch Ali Musaliar. The people of Podiattu were prepare to resistance. The natives of Pookkottur would also start. I and Moidu Musaliar went to Pookkottur to pacify the people. Abdu Rahman went to Mancheri to bring Madhavan Nair. The natives of Podiattu listened to our advice and did not go to Pookkottur. We returned back to Pookkottur. Abdu Rahman bought Madhavan Nair after 3 O’ clock. He adviced the people not to indulge in anykind of violence.

At about 4.30 Three Mappilas came. They told us that the big Jama At Masjid has been destroyed and Ali Musaliar wanted averybody to reach Thirurangadi. When Madhavan Nair and others got convinced that their advices will not be accepted by the angry mob they returned back. I alongwith Nottath Kunjupoker, Paravanchery Kunjaramutty went to inform Kunji Thangal. We saw about 100 people between 27th and 28th mile. They told us that they are going to Nilambur in search of Aram Thirumulpad. Some people from Pookkottur, Veembur and Abdu Haji joined them. Those who went to Nilambur did not participate in the Manjeri Police station attack. It was the naitives of Pookkottur, Melmuri and Narukara and myself under the leadership of Vadakke Veettil Mammed attacked the police station. When we reached Manjeri there were about 1000 people. Nobody was there in the police station. There were no weapons also. We were desperate. On 22nd people came from Pookkottur, Melmuri, Karuvamburam, Valluambram and looted weopens and the Mancheri Treasury. I did not go along with them. Mammed and Abdu Haji was the leaders. They got only 12 to 13 guns. I saw them with the natives of Irumbuzhi and Muttippalam. All of them died in the clashes. The guns were taken by Abdu Haji and his group. Military came upto Vellur Kalvert and returned back(because it was broken) Mammad made arrangements to attack the military. They decided to attack the military in the field between 27th mile and 28th mile. The plan was to attack them from both the sides. But without knowing the plan, before all lotties come to this road. Paranchery Kunjaramutty started firing. I was not more in the war front. I and the Kunji Thangal were sitting in a nearly house.

The statements of Moideen Kutty Haji which I quoted here are from the book of History of Malabar rebellion written by R.H. Hitchcoke, Malabar Rebellion 1921. Karattu Moideen Kutty Haji his friend Nettath Kunjukher, Chenat Kuzhiyil Avaran, Kizhakkepurath VeeranKutty, Kanniyath Abdu Rahman Kutty Haji and Edathil Seyedalavi were hanged in the first week of August 1922.

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